Old India

I love scouring the web for old photos.  I found some real treasures when I stumbled across these old photos from India!  Please let me know which are your favorites and if you would like to see more of them, there are a bunch more waiting to be posted 🙂

 

All photos are from and used with permission of: http://www.oldindianphotos.in/

Women Grinding Paint - Calcutta c1845

Women Grinding Paint – Calcutta c1845

Three Hindu Ladies - c1880's

Three Hindu Ladies – c1880’s

The-Maharaja-of-Mysore-Krishnaraja-Wadiyar-IV---2nd-February-1895

The-Maharaja-of-Mysore-Krishnaraja-Wadiyar-IV—2nd-February-1895

The Birdseller, Albumen Print - 19th Century

The Birdseller, Albumen Print – 19th Century

Street and Lower Bazaar at Simla 1890's

Street and Lower Bazaar at Simla 1890’s

SINHALESE DEVIL DANCERS - Ceylon (Sri Lanka) c1890's

SINHALESE DEVIL DANCERS – Ceylon (Sri Lanka) c1890’s

Jain Temples in Palitana, Gujarat - c1880's

Jain Temples in Palitana, Gujarat – c1880’s

Maha Lawka Maya Zain Pagoda (Kuthodaw Pagoda) - Mandalay, Burma (Myanmar) c1880's

Maha Lawka Maya Zain Pagoda (Kuthodaw Pagoda) – Mandalay, Burma (Myanmar) c1880’s

Maharao Shri Khengarji III of Cutch - c1900

Maharao Shri Khengarji III of Cutch – c1900

Portrait-of-Two-Women-by-Raja-Deen-Dayal-and-Sons---Date-Unknown

Portrait-of-Two-Women-by-Raja-Deen-Dayal-and-Sons—Date-Unknown

Sein Kyaw, Burmese Dancing Girl - Burma c1900's

Sein Kyaw, Burmese Dancing Girl – Burma c1900’s

Group Photograph of House Servants - Late 19th Century

Group Photograph of House Servants – Late 19th Century

Group of men and Children at a village Near Keylong, Lahaul and Spiti District, Himachal Pradesh - c1903

Group of men and Children at a village Near Keylong, Lahaul and Spiti District, Himachal Pradesh – c1903

Gateway of the Tomb of I'timād-ud-Daulah - Agra, c1860's

Gateway of the Tomb of I’timād-ud-Daulah – Agra, c1860’s

Double Bullock Carts - Ceylon (Sri Lanka) c1890's

Double Bullock Carts – Ceylon (Sri Lanka) c1890’s

Camel with Attendant - Jaipur, Rajasthan, c1900's

Camel with Attendant – Jaipur, Rajasthan, c1900’s

Children in North Bihar, India - May 1951

Children in North Bihar, India – May 1951

A Reclining Woman Wearing Jewellery, with a Hookah on the Left - Lucknow 1872

A Reclining Woman Wearing Jewellery, with a Hookah on the Left – Lucknow 1872

109 year old Apatani woman of slave class with nose plugs, Subansiri Frontier District, India, ca. 1954

109 year old Apatani woman of slave class with nose plugs, Subansiri Frontier District, India, ca. 1954

A Reclining Woman Wearing Jewellery, with a Hookah on the Left - Lucknow 1872

A Reclining Woman Wearing Jewellery, with a Hookah on the Left – Lucknow 1872

Aghoree,-Hindoo-Mendicant---Benares-(Varanasi)-c1860's

Aghoree,-Hindoo-Mendicant—Benares-(Varanasi)-c1860’s

Andaman Tribals Fishing - Circa 1870

Andaman Tribals Fishing – Circa 1870

 

Imperial Russia- Pre 1917

Self-portrait on the Karolitskhali River, ca. 1910.

Self-portrait on the Karolitskhali River, ca. 1910.

Given how many historical photos are video are shot in black and white, many of us can forget that the past was also in full color – we just don’t get to see it. However, these photos of Russia in the beginning of the 20th century by photographer Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky give us a rare glimpse into the past in full and glorious color.

Color photography, in the way that we understand it, was not possible at the time, but it was possible to create a color image for the viewer by completing three separate photographs. Prokudin-Gorsky had to take three separate photographs of the same subject – once with a red filter over the lens, once with a green filter, and once with a blue filter (red, green, blue – RGB – is a set of color channels used by many digital images as well). Later on, these three monochromatic images would be projected through filters of those same colors onto a screen and superimposed. When viewed through a final filter, they would appear as a realistic color image to the viewer.

A trained chemist and artist, Prokudin-Gorsky began creating tricolor photos after studying with German photochemistry professor Adolf Miethe. Tsar Nicholas II was so impressed by Prokudin-Gorsky’s work, including his famous portrait of Leo Tolstoy, that he commissioned the photographer to take pictures all over Russia. Though he fled Russia after the October Revolution, the negatives he took with him that weren’t confiscated were eventually purchased by the U.S. Library of Congress in 1948 and published in 1980.

Sart woman in purdah in Samarkand, Uzbekistan, ca. 1910. Until the Russian revolution of 1917, “Sart” was the name for Uzbeks living in Kazakhstan

Sart woman in purdah in Samarkand, Uzbekistan, ca. 1910. Until the Russian revolution of 1917, “Sart” was the name for Uzbeks living in Kazakhstan

Russian children sit on the side of a hill near a church and bell tower near White Lake, in Russia, 1909

Russian children sit on the side of a hill near a church and bell tower near White Lake, in Russia, 1909

Prokudin-Gorskii rides along on a handcar outside Petrozavodsk on the Murmansk railway along Lake Onega near Petrozavodsk in 1910

Prokudin-Gorskii rides along on a handcar outside Petrozavodsk on the Murmansk railway along Lake Onega near Petrozavodsk in 1910

Peasants harvesting hay in 1909. From the album “Views along the Mariinskii Canal and river system, Russian Empire”

Peasants harvesting hay in 1909. From the album “Views along the Mariinskii Canal and river system, Russian Empire”

On the Sim River, a shepherd boy. Photo taken in 1910, from the album “Views in the Ural Mountains, survey of industrial area, Russian Empire”

On the Sim River, a shepherd boy. Photo taken in 1910, from the album “Views in the Ural Mountains, survey of industrial area, Russian Empire”

General view of the Nikolaevskii Cathedral from southwest in Mozhaisk in 1911

General view of the Nikolaevskii Cathedral from southwest in Mozhaisk in 1911

General view of the wharf at Mezhevaya Utka, 1912

General view of the wharf at Mezhevaya Utka, 1912

Isfandiyar Jurji Bahadur, Khan of the Russian protectorate of Khorezm (Khiva, now a part of modern Uzbekistan), full-length portrait, seated outdoors, ca. 1910

Isfandiyar Jurji Bahadur, Khan of the Russian protectorate of Khorezm (Khiva, now a part of modern Uzbekistan), full-length portrait, seated outdoors, ca. 1910

Laying concrete for the dam’s sluice, 1912. Workers and supervisors amid preparations for pouring cement for sluice dam foundation across the Oka River near Beloomut

Laying concrete for the dam’s sluice, 1912. Workers and supervisors amid preparations for pouring cement for sluice dam foundation across the Oka River near Beloomut

Molding of an artistic casting (Kasli Iron Works), 1910.

Molding of an artistic casting (Kasli Iron Works), 1910.

Nomadic Kirghiz on the Golodnaia Steppe in present-day Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan, ca. 1910

Nomadic Kirghiz on the Golodnaia Steppe in present-day Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan, ca. 1910

General view of Artvin (now in Turkey) from the small town of Svet, ca. 1910

General view of Artvin (now in Turkey) from the small town of Svet, ca. 1910

Factory in Kyn, Russia, belonging to Count S.A. Stroganov, 1912

Factory in Kyn, Russia, belonging to Count S.A. Stroganov, 1912

Alternators made in Budapest, Hungary, in the power generating hall of a hydroelectric station in Iolotan (Eloten), Turkmenistan, on the Murghab River, ca. 1910

Alternators made in Budapest, Hungary, in the power generating hall of a hydroelectric station in Iolotan (Eloten), Turkmenistan, on the Murghab River, ca. 1910

A woman is seated in a calm spot on the Sim River, part of the Volga watershed in 1910

A woman is seated in a calm spot on the Sim River, part of the Volga watershed in 1910

An Armenian woman in national costume poses for Prokudin-Gorskii on a hillside near Artvin (in present day Turkey)

An Armenian woman in national costume poses for Prokudin-Gorskii on a hillside near Artvin (in present day Turkey)

A water-carrier in Samarkand (present-day Uzbekistan), ca. 1910

A water-carrier in Samarkand (present-day Uzbekistan), ca. 1910

A switch operator poses on the Trans-Siberian Railroad, near the town of Ust Katav on the Yuryuzan River in 1910

A switch operator poses on the Trans-Siberian Railroad, near the town of Ust Katav on the Yuryuzan River in 1910

A man and woman pose in Dagestan, ca. 1910

A man and woman pose in Dagestan, ca. 1910

A group of women in Dagestan, ca. 1910

A group of women in Dagestan, ca. 1910

A group of Jewish children with a teacher in Samarkand, (in modern Uzbekistan), ca. 1910

A group of Jewish children with a teacher in Samarkand, (in modern Uzbekistan), ca. 1910

A general view of Sukhumi, Abkhazia and its bay, seen sometime around 1910 from Cherniavskii Mountain

A general view of Sukhumi, Abkhazia and its bay, seen sometime around 1910 from Cherniavskii Mountain

A boy leans on a wooden gatepost in 1910. From the album “Views in the Ural Mountains, survey of industrial area, Russian Empire”

A boy leans on a wooden gatepost in 1910. From the album “Views in the Ural Mountains, survey of industrial area, Russian Empire”

A boy sits in the court of Tillia-Kari mosque in Samarkand, present-day Uzbekistan, ca. 1910

A boy sits in the court of Tillia-Kari mosque in Samarkand, present-day Uzbekistan, ca. 1910

A chapel sits on the site where the city of Belozersk was founded in ancient times, photographed in 1909

A chapel sits on the site where the city of Belozersk was founded in ancient times, photographed in 1909

A dog rests on the shore of Lake Lindozero in 1910. From the album “Views along the Murmansk Railway, Russian Empire”

A dog rests on the shore of Lake Lindozero in 1910. From the album “Views along the Murmansk Railway, Russian Empire”

old china 2

I received a lot of compliments on the first go around of Old China so I have decided to do another. You may see some duplicates in this series, I apologize in advance.  Please enjoy these, the photos depict a lifestyle and culture that most of the “modern” world cannot comprehend.  As always, please let me know what are your favorite photos in the series and please rate the post as well 🙂

One other thing to note:  I am not the restorer of these photos, I copied them from a much more talented person than myself 🙂

https://www.flickr.com/photos/ralphrepo_photolog/

 

China's Common Carrier, Her Substitute For Railways, A Camel Square In Peking, China [1901] Underwood & Co [RESTORED]
China’s Common Carrier, Her Substitute For Railways, A Camel Square In Peking, China [1901] Underwood & Co.

Portrait Of Manchu Girl In Traditional Costume, Beijing, China, [c1861-1864] Attribution Unknown [RESTORED]
Portrait Of Manchu Girl In Traditional Costume, Beijing, China, [c1861-1864]

Men With Leopard At The Dongan Mission, China [1932] Fr. Otto Rauschenbach [RESTORED]
Men With Leopard At The Dongan Mission, China [1932] Fr. Otto Rauschenbach

House Interior Showing Woman With Bound Feet Tending A Stove In The Lost Tribe Country [1936] Hedda Morrison [RESTORED]
House Interior Showing Woman With Bound Feet Tending A Stove In The Lost Tribe Country [1936] Hedda Morrison

Fisher Families With Junks In Aberdeen Harbor, Hong Kong Island [c1946] Hedda Morrison [RESTORED]
Fisher Families With Junks In Aberdeen Harbor, Hong Kong Island [c1946] Hedda Morrison

Six Strongmen In Traditional Dress, China [1909] William Purdom [RESTORED]
Six Strongmen In Traditional Dress, China [1909] William Purdom

Kampa Dzong, Tibet [1904] John C. White [RESTORED]
Kampa Dzong, Tibet [1904] John C. White

Manchurian Plague [c1910] Unknown photographer
Manchurian Plague [c1910] Unknown photographer

Island Temple On The River Min Near Foochow, Fukien Province, China [1870-1871] John Thomson
Island Temple On The River Min Near Foochow, Fukien Province, China [1870-1871]

Yen's Soldiers, Militarism In China, Here Are Specimens Of The Soldiery Who Protect The People By Dominating Them, Who Protect Property By Looting It, Liao Chow, Shansi, China [c1925] IE Oberholtzer (probable) [RESTORED]
Yen’s Soldiers, Militarism In China, Here Are Specimens Of The Soldiery Who Protect The People By Dominating Them, Who Protect Property By Looting It, Liao Chow, Shansi, China [c1925]

Seated Man Amid Baskets Of Fish & Hanging Dried Fish, Eastern Districts, Hong Kong Island [c1946] Hedda Morrison [RESTORED]
Seated Man Amid Baskets Of Fish & Hanging Dried Fish, Eastern Districts, Hong Kong Island [c1946] Hedda Morrison

Toy Vendor, Chinatown, San Francisco [c1900s] Arnold Genthe [RESTORED]
Toy Vendor, Chinatown, San Francisco [c1900s] Arnold Genthe

Ulysses S. Grant & Li Hung Chang, Tientsin, China [1879] Attribution Unk [RESTORED]
Ulysses S. Grant & Li Hung Chang, Tientsin, China [1879]

A Boat On A River With Rolling Hills In The Background In The Kiangsu Province Or Yunnan Province In China [1946] Arthur Rothstein [RESTORED]
A Boat On A River With Rolling Hills In The Background In The Kiangsu Province Or Yunnan Province In China [1946] Arthur Rothstein

Natives At Breakfast, Movable Chow Shop, Canton, China [c1919] Keystone View Co. [RESTORED]
Natives At Breakfast, Movable Chow Shop, Canton, China [c1919] Keystone View Co.

Old China

I remember being a child and being told, ” You can dig to China.”  Well let me tell you, to a seven year old boy, it can really spark the imagination!  I have always been fascinated by the people and the culture of the east.  I found these photos thru a blog at https://www.flickr.com/photos/ralphrepo_photolog/ .  I hope you enjoy and please do let me know your favorites.  If these are popular, I have found a treasure trove of old Chinese photos which I plan to put up in the coming week or two!

Men laden with tea, Sichuan, China [1908] Ernest H. Wilson

Men laden with tea, Sichuan, China [1908] Ernest H. Wilson

Manchu Ladies Of The Palace [c1910-1925] Frank & Frances Carpenter

Manchu Ladies Of The Palace [c1910-1925] Frank & Frances Carpenter

Jade Belt Bridge & boat, Summer Palace, Peking, China [c1924] Sidney D. Gamble

Jade Belt Bridge & boat, Summer Palace, Peking, China [c1924] Sidney D. Gamble

Great Wall of China [1907] Herbert G. Ponting

Great Wall of China [1907] Herbert G. Ponting

Coal miners in mountain ridge west Of Ta Chu, China [1909] Thomas C. Chamberlin

Coal miners in mountain ridge west Of Ta Chu, China [1909] Thomas C. Chamberlin

Chinese women with fans, Canton, China [c1880] Afong Lai

Chinese women with fans, Canton, China [c1880] Afong Lai

Bridges where night-police-of-the-roofs cross the streets, Canton [1900] Underwood & Co

Bridges where night-police-of-the-roofs cross the streets, Canton [1900] Underwood & Co

Canton, China [c1880] R.H. Brown

Canton, China [c1880] R.H. Brown

Chang The Chinese Giant [c1870]

Chang The Chinese Giant [c1870]

china-old-photo-auto-race

china-old-photo-auto-race

Beggars, Beihai Park [c1917-1919] Sydney D. Gamble

Beggars, Beihai Park [c1917-1919] Sydney D. Gamble

Breakfast, movable chow shop, Canton, China [c1919] Keystone View Co.

Breakfast, movable chow shop, Canton, China [c1919] Keystone View Co.

china-old-photo-canalInterior Canal, Canton, China [c1917-1919] Sidney D. Gamble

china-old-photo-canalInterior Canal, Canton, China [c1917-1919] Sidney D. Gamble

Chinese punishment, whipping a lawbreaker [c1900]

Chinese punishment, whipping a lawbreaker [c1900]

Breakfast, movable chow shop, Canton, China [c1919] Keystone View Co.

Breakfast, movable chow shop, Canton, China [c1919] Keystone View Co.

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The cross.

I was cruising around the internet and I found a really neat photo of Christ on the cross.   It is in Lake Michigan, near Petosky, MI.  It got me thinking and I wanted to explore where there may be other places which are out of the way, where the cross might be found.  I hope you enjoy my findings, please let me know which is your favorite 🙂

The city of Siauliai was founded in 1236 and controlled by Teutonic Knights during the 14th century. The tradition of placing crosses seems to date from this period and may have risen as a symbol of Lithuanian defiance toward foreign invaders. Since the medieval period, the Hill of Crosses has represented the peaceful resistance of Lithuanian Catholicism to oppression. In 1795, Siauliai was incorporated into Russia but was returned to Lithuania in 1918. Many crosses were erected upon the hill after the peasant uprising of 1831-63. By 1895, there were at least 150 large crosses, in 1914, 200, and by 1940 there were 400 large crosses surrounded by thousands of smaller ones.

crosses on a hillAfter being captured by Germany in World War II, the city suffered even more damage when Soviet Russia retook it at the war’s end. From 1944 until Lithuania’s independence in 1991, Siauliai was a part of the Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic. During the Soviet era, the pilgrimage to the Hill of Crosses became expression of Lithuanian nationalism. The Soviets repeatedly removed the crosses placed on the hill by Lithuanians.

The hill was leveled three times: during 1961, 1973 and 1975. The crosses were burned or turned into scrap metal, and the area was covered with waste and sewage. Following each of these agonizing experiences local inhabitants and pilgrims from all over Lithuania rapidly replaced crosses upon the sacred hill. In 1985, the Hill of Crosses finally found peace. The reputation of the hill has since spread all over the world and every year it is visited by many thousands of visitors.

The size and variety of crosses is as amazing as their number. Beautifully carved out of wood or sculpted from metal, the crosses range from three meters tall to the countless tiny examples hanging profusely upon the larger crosses.

– See more at: http://www.faithandfacts.com/christianity/lithuania%e2%80%99s-hill-of-crosses/#sthash.5XzaPUP9.dpuf

Petosky, Michigan

The history behind the Little Traverse Bay Crucifix

Each year, if the winter weather allows, Denny Jessick – an Emmet County Sheriff’s Office Marine and Snowmobile Officer – welcomes the public onto the ice of Little Traverse Bay to view a most unique sight that might otherwise go completely unnoticed in this region of beauty.

About 800 feet offshore and under 21 feet of water lies an Italian white marble crucifix, the only known freshwater-underwater crucifix. It came to Petoskey in 1962 in a round-about way, and has become a draw for divers and visitors alike ever since.

The 11-foot tall crucifix, with a 5-foot 5-inch figure of Jesus Christ, was placed in the Bay, near the Petoskey breakwall at Bayfront Park, by the Wyandotte-based Superior Marine Divers Club in 1962. Its original intent was to honor Charles Raymond, a Southgate diver who drowned in Torch Lake. Later, the club expanded the focus of the monument to memorialize all those who have perished at sea.

Its origins date back to the late 1950s, when a grieving mother and father from Rapson in Michigan’s Thumb area had it crafted in memory of their son, Gerald Schipinski. Gerald was 15-years-old in 1956 when he was accidentally killed by a shotgun on the family farm.

After being crafted in Italy, the cross was broken during shipping to the Rapson Catholic church; the family rejected the damaged crucifix and it was sold in an insurance sale to the Wyandotte dive club. The crucifix made its way to Little Traverse Bay and was first placed by the U.S. Icebreaker Sundew 1,200 feet off the Petoskey breakwall on Aug. 12, 1962.

The event drew hundreds of people and several dignitaries. The actor Lloyd Bridges was invited, but he sent a telegram to event organizers declining the invitation due to a heavy film-shooting schedule. Bridges’ telegram is kept in a thick binder of memorabilia preserved by Jessick and his wife, Susan.

29914136

The city of Siauliai was founded in 1236 and controlled by Teutonic Knights during the 14th century. The tradition of placing crosses seems to date from this period and may have risen as a symbol of Lithuanian defiance toward foreign invaders. Since the medieval period, the Hill of Crosses has represented the peaceful resistance of Lithuanian Catholicism to oppression. In 1795, Siauliai was incorporated into Russia but was returned to Lithuania in 1918. Many crosses were erected upon the hill after the peasant uprising of 1831-63. By 1895, there were at least 150 large crosses, in 1914, 200, and by 1940 there were 400 large crosses surrounded by thousands of smaller ones.

crosses on a hillAfter being captured by Germany in World War II, the city suffered even more damage when Soviet Russia retook it at the war’s end. From 1944 until Lithuania’s independence in 1991, Siauliai was a part of the Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic. During the Soviet era, the pilgrimage to the Hill of Crosses became expression of Lithuanian nationalism. The Soviets repeatedly removed the crosses placed on the hill by Lithuanians.

The hill was leveled three times: during 1961, 1973 and 1975. The crosses were burned or turned into scrap metal, and the area was covered with waste and sewage. Following each of these agonizing experiences local inhabitants and pilgrims from all over Lithuania rapidly replaced crosses upon the sacred hill. In 1985, the Hill of Crosses finally found peace. The reputation of the hill has since spread all over the world and every year it is visited by many thousands of visitors.

The size and variety of crosses is as amazing as their number. Beautifully carved out of wood or sculpted from metal, the crosses range from three meters tall to the countless tiny examples hanging profusely upon the larger crosses.

– See more at: http://www.faithandfacts.com/christianity/lithuania%e2%80%99s-hill-of-crosses/#sthash.5XzaPUP9.dpuf

It is thought that crosses first began to appear at this spot in the thirteenth century, shortly after the city was founded.  Since then there have been varying numbers of crosses at the site.  It was in the 1831 uprising against Russia that the Hill of Crosses became political as well as purely religious.  Crosses were placed here to commemorate the dead and missing rebels of this period and by the beginning of the twentieth century there were 150 crosses. By 1940 there were 400. Today there are over 100,000.  read more here

The city of Siauliai was founded in 1236 and controlled by Teutonic Knights during the 14th century. The tradition of placing crosses seems to date from this period and may have risen as a symbol of Lithuanian defiance toward foreign invaders. Since the medieval period, the Hill of Crosses has represented the peaceful resistance of Lithuanian Catholicism to oppression. In 1795, Siauliai was incorporated into Russia but was returned to Lithuania in 1918. Many crosses were erected upon the hill after the peasant uprising of 1831-63. By 1895, there were at least 150 large crosses, in 1914, 200, and by 1940 there were 400 large crosses surrounded by thousands of smaller ones. – See more at: http://www.faithandfacts.com/christianity/lithuania%e2%80%99s-hill-of-crosses/#sthash.5XzaPUP9.dpuf

The city of Siauliai was founded in 1236 and controlled by Teutonic Knights during the 14th century. The tradition of placing crosses seems to date from this period and may have risen as a symbol of Lithuanian defiance toward foreign invaders. Since the medieval period, the Hill of Crosses has represented the peaceful resistance of Lithuanian Catholicism to oppression. In 1795, Siauliai was incorporated into Russia but was returned to Lithuania in 1918. Many crosses were erected upon the hill after the peasant uprising of 1831-63. By 1895, there were at least 150 large crosses, in 1914, 200, and by 1940 there were 400 large crosses surrounded by thousands of smaller ones.

crosses on a hillAfter being captured by Germany in World War II, the city suffered even more damage when Soviet Russia retook it at the war’s end. From 1944 until Lithuania’s independence in 1991, Siauliai was a part of the Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic. During the Soviet era, the pilgrimage to the Hill of Crosses became expression of Lithuanian nationalism. The Soviets repeatedly removed the crosses placed on the hill by Lithuanians.

The hill was leveled three times: during 1961, 1973 and 1975. The crosses were burned or turned into scrap metal, and the area was covered with waste and sewage. Following each of these agonizing experiences local inhabitants and pilgrims from all over Lithuania rapidly replaced crosses upon the sacred hill. In 1985, the Hill of Crosses finally found peace. The reputation of the hill has since spread all over the world and every year it is visited by many thousands of visitors.

The size and variety of crosses is as amazing as their number. Beautifully carved out of wood or sculpted from metal, the crosses range from three meters tall to the countless tiny examples hanging profusely upon the larger crosses.

– See more at: http://www.faithandfacts.com/christianity/lithuania%e2%80%99s-hill-of-crosses/#sthash.5XzaPUP9.dpuf

 

The city of Siauliai was founded in 1236 and controlled by Teutonic Knights during the 14th century. The tradition of placing crosses seems to date from this period and may have risen as a symbol of Lithuanian defiance toward foreign invaders. Since the medieval period, the Hill of Crosses has represented the peaceful resistance of Lithuanian Catholicism to oppression. In 1795, Siauliai was incorporated into Russia but was returned to Lithuania in 1918. Many crosses were erected upon the hill after the peasant uprising of 1831-63. By 1895, there were at least 150 large crosses, in 1914, 200, and by 1940 there were 400 large crosses surrounded by thousands of smaller ones.

crosses on a hillAfter being captured by Germany in World War II, the city suffered even more damage when Soviet Russia retook it at the war’s end. From 1944 until Lithuania’s independence in 1991, Siauliai was a part of the Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic. During the Soviet era, the pilgrimage to the Hill of Crosses became expression of Lithuanian nationalism. The Soviets repeatedly removed the crosses placed on the hill by Lithuanians.

The hill was leveled three times: during 1961, 1973 and 1975. The crosses were burned or turned into scrap metal, and the area was covered with waste and sewage. Following each of these agonizing experiences local inhabitants and pilgrims from all over Lithuania rapidly replaced crosses upon the sacred hill. In 1985, the Hill of Crosses finally found peace. The reputation of the hill has since spread all over the world and every year it is visited by many thousands of visitors.

The size and variety of crosses is as amazing as their number. Beautifully carved out of wood or sculpted from metal, the crosses range from three meters tall to the countless tiny examples hanging profusely upon the larger crosses.

– See more at: http://www.faithandfacts.com/christianity/lithuania%e2%80%99s-hill-of-crosses/#sthash.5XzaPUP9.dpuf

Hill of crosses

HAND HILL CROSS

hand hill cross

This cross is 10.6cm tall and is known as “the smallest cross on Dartmoor”.
I understand, however, that the Traveller’s Ford Cross is slightly smaller. That cross is in SX5978 but a more precise position is not given, though Explorer OL28 suggests a likely spot. (I say that it ‘is’ in square SX5978, but it has been removed at least twice and may no longer be there. Perhaps Hand Hill Cross is currently the smallest.)
I find it strange that people should want to place ever-smaller crosses on the moor. But I find it even more strange that other people should want to damage or steal them.

GROOM TEXAS

Groom texas

2nd Largest Cross in the Western Hemisphere

Bald Knob Cross Illinois

Bald Knob Cross Illinois

bald-knob-cross

bald-knob-cross

Christ the Redeemer, Rio De Janeiro

Christ the Redeemer, Rio De Janeiro

Granite Cross, Basílica de la Santa Cruz

Granite Cross, Basílica de la Santa Cruz

Dubrovnik, Croatia

Dubrovnik, Croatia

 

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THE Vest…..

Soviet steel breastplate SN-42. Armor = 2mm. Weight = 3.5 kg

Soviet steel breastplate SN-42. Armor = 2mm. Weight = 3.5 kg

I ran across an old picture of bulletproof vest testing.  The guy in the vest is either really brave or…….well kind of insane in my opinion.  This spurred me on to take a look at the history of the projectile proof vest which naturally led to the history of fire arms.  I had absolutely no Idea that explosive projectiles have been around for more than a thousand years.  I have included some wiki below:

Early Modern era

In 1538, Francesco Maria della Rovere commissioned Filippo Negroli to create a bulletproof vest. In 1561, Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor is recorded as testing his armor against gun-fire. Similarly, in 1590 Sir Henry Lee expected his Greenwich armor to be “pistol proof”. Its actual effectiveness was controversial at the time.[2] The etymology of “bullet” and the adjective form of “proof” in the late 16th century would suggest that the term “bulletproof” originated shortly thereafter.

During the English Civil War Oliver Cromwell‘s Ironside cavalry were equipped with Capeline helmets and musket-proof cuirasses which consisted of two layers of armor plate (in later studies involving X-ray a third layer was discovered which was placed in between the outer and inner layer). The outer layer was designed to absorb the bullet’s energy and the thicker inner layer stopped further penetration. The armor would be left badly dented but still serviceable.[3] One of the first recorded descriptions of soft armor use was found in medieval Japan, with the armor having been manufactured from silk.[4]

Polish inventor Jan Szczepanik. On the photo - the first (and success) test of the invention (1901) done by Mr. Borzykowski

Polish inventor Jan Szczepanik. On the photo – the first (and success) test of the invention (1901) done by Mr. Borzykowski

Industrial era

One of the first commercially sold bulletproof armour was produced by a tailor in Dublin, Ireland in the 1840s. The Cork Examiner reported on his line of business in December 1847:[5]

The daily melancholy announcements of assassination that are now disgracing the country, and the murderers permitted to walk quietly away and defy the law, have induced me to get constructed a garment, shot and ball proof, so that every man can be protected, and enabled to return the fire of the assassin, and thus soon put a stop to the cowardly conduct which has deprived society of so many excellent and valuable lives, spreading terror and desolation through the country. I hope in a few days to have a specimen garment on view at my warerooms.

Another soft ballistic vest, Myeonje baegab, was invented in Joseon, Korea in the 1860s shortly after the French campaign against Korea. Heungseon Daewongun ordered development of bullet-proof armor because of increasing threats from Western armies. Kim Gi-Doo and Gang Yoon found that cotton could protect against bullets if 10 layers of cotton fabric were used. The vests were used in battle during the United States expedition to Korea, when the US Navy attacked Ganghwa Island in 1871. The US Navy captured one of the vests and took it to the US, where it was stored at the Smithsonian Museum until 2007. The vest has since been sent back to Korea and is currently on display to the public.[citation needed]

Testing of new bulletproof vests, 1923

Testing of new bulletproof vests, 1923

Simple ballistic armor was sometimes constructed by criminals. During the 1880s, a gang of Australian bushrangers led by Ned Kelly made basic armour from plough blades. By this time the Victorian Government had a reward for the capture of a member of the Kelly Gang at £8,000 (equivalent to $2 million Australian dollars in 2005). One of the stated aims of Kelly was the establishment of a Republic in North East Victoria. Each of the four Kelly gang members had fought a siege at a hotel clad in suits of armour made from the mouldboards of ploughs. The maker’s stamp (Lennon Number 2 Type) was found inside several of the plates. The men used the armour to cover their torsos, upper arms, and upper legs, and was worn with a helmet.

The suits were roughly made on a creek bed using a makeshift forge and a stringy-bark log as a muffled anvil. They had a mass of around 44 kg (96 lb), making the wearer a spectacular sight yet proved too unwieldy during a police raid at Glenrowan. Their armour deflected many hits with none penetrating, but eventually was of no use as the suits lacked protection for the legs and hands.

Ned Kelly armour, located at the State Library of Victoria, Melbourne, Australia,

Ned Kelly armour, located at the State Library of Victoria, Melbourne, Australia,

World War I german Infantrie Panzer, 1918

World War I german Infantrie Panzer, 1918

In 1881, Tombstone physician George E. Goodfellow noticed that a Faro dealer Luke Short who was shot was saved by his silk handkerchief in his breast pocket that prevented the bullet from penetrating.[6][7] In 1887, he wrote an article titled Impenetrability of Silk to Bullets[8] for the Southern California Practitioner documenting the first known instance of bulletproof fabric. He experimented with[9] silk vests resembling medieval gambesons, which used 18 to 30 layers of silk fabric to protect the wearers from penetration.

Fr. Kazimierz Żegleń used Goodfellow’s findings to develop a bulletproof vest made of silk fabric at the end of the 19th century, which could stop the relatively slow rounds from black powder handguns. The vests cost $800 USD each in 1914, a small fortune at the time the modern day equivalent of $18,710 USD. On 28 June 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, was wearing a silk bulletproof vest when he was attacked by a gun-wielding assassin. He was shot in the neck and the vest did not protect him.

Two American GIs wearing M1951 bullet-proof vests on Triangle Hill

Two American GIs wearing M1951 bullet-proof vests on Triangle Hill

Marines with Security Company, Combat Logistics Battalion 4, Combat Logistics Regiment 3, 3rd Marine Logistics Group, adjust Lance Cpl. Andrew Best’s Modular Tactical Vest

Marines with Security Company, Combat Logistics Battalion 4, Combat Logistics Regiment 3, 3rd Marine Logistics Group, adjust Lance Cpl. Andrew Best’s Modular Tactical Vest

A similar vest, made by Polish inventor Jan Szczepanik in 1901, saved the life of Alfonso XIII of Spain when he was shot by an attacker. By 1900, gangsters were wearing $800 silk vests to protect themselves.[10]

 

This all naturally led me to the history of firearms which I have included a bit of below:

The direct ancestor of the firearm is the fire lance, a black-powder–filled tube attached to the end of a spear and used as a flamethrower (not to be confused with the Byzantine flamethrower); shrapnel was sometimes placed in the barrel so that it would fly out together with the flames.[4][5] The earliest depiction of a gunpowder weapon is the illustration of a fire-lance on a mid-12th century silk banner from Dunhuang.[6] The De’an Shoucheng Lu, an account of the siege of De’an in 1132, records that Song forces used fire-lances against the Jurchens.[7]

old Chinese Hand Cannon on display at the Shaanxi history museum in Xi'An, China. The placard reads Bronze firearm, Yuan dynasty (1271-1368 ACE)

old Chinese Hand Cannon on display at the Shaanxi history museum in Xi’An, China. The placard reads Bronze firearm, Yuan dynasty (1271-1368 ACE)

In due course, the proportion of saltpeter in the propellant was increased to maximise its explosive power.[5] To better withstand that explosive power, the paper and bamboo of which fire-lance barrels were originally made came to be replaced by metal.[4] And to take full advantage of that power, the shrapnel came to be replaced by projectiles whose size and shape filled the barrel more closely.[5] With this, we have the three basic features of the gun: a barrel made of metal, high-nitrate gunpowder, and a projectile which totally occludes the muzzle so that the powder charge exerts its full potential in propellant effect.[8]

The earliest depiction of a gun is a sculpture from a cave in Sichuan dating to the 12th century of a figure carrying a vase-shaped bombard with flames and a cannonball coming out of it.[1][9] The oldest surviving gun, made of bronze, has been dated to 1288 because it was discovered at a site in modern-day Acheng District where the Yuan Shi records that battles were fought at that time; Li Ting, a military commander of Jurchen descent, led foot-soldiers armed with guns—including a Korean brigade—in battle to suppress the rebellion of the Christian Mongol prince Nayan.[10]

German grenade rifles from the 16th century (wheellock) and 18th century (flintlock) in the Bayerisches Nationalmuseum, München

German grenade rifles from the 16th century (wheellock) and 18th century (flintlock) in the Bayerisches Nationalmuseum, München

Guns - Safavid dynasty- Iran (Persia) - 17AD

Guns – Safavid dynasty- Iran (Persia) – 17AD

I know that firearms in our society today are a hot point in many conversations and social circles.  I create this post solely as a purpose of history to the devices.  I sincerely hope you enjoy, please be sure to let me know your thoughts 🙂

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