The cross.

I was cruising around the internet and I found a really neat photo of Christ on the cross.   It is in Lake Michigan, near Petosky, MI.  It got me thinking and I wanted to explore where there may be other places which are out of the way, where the cross might be found.  I hope you enjoy my findings, please let me know which is your favorite 🙂

The city of Siauliai was founded in 1236 and controlled by Teutonic Knights during the 14th century. The tradition of placing crosses seems to date from this period and may have risen as a symbol of Lithuanian defiance toward foreign invaders. Since the medieval period, the Hill of Crosses has represented the peaceful resistance of Lithuanian Catholicism to oppression. In 1795, Siauliai was incorporated into Russia but was returned to Lithuania in 1918. Many crosses were erected upon the hill after the peasant uprising of 1831-63. By 1895, there were at least 150 large crosses, in 1914, 200, and by 1940 there were 400 large crosses surrounded by thousands of smaller ones.

crosses on a hillAfter being captured by Germany in World War II, the city suffered even more damage when Soviet Russia retook it at the war’s end. From 1944 until Lithuania’s independence in 1991, Siauliai was a part of the Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic. During the Soviet era, the pilgrimage to the Hill of Crosses became expression of Lithuanian nationalism. The Soviets repeatedly removed the crosses placed on the hill by Lithuanians.

The hill was leveled three times: during 1961, 1973 and 1975. The crosses were burned or turned into scrap metal, and the area was covered with waste and sewage. Following each of these agonizing experiences local inhabitants and pilgrims from all over Lithuania rapidly replaced crosses upon the sacred hill. In 1985, the Hill of Crosses finally found peace. The reputation of the hill has since spread all over the world and every year it is visited by many thousands of visitors.

The size and variety of crosses is as amazing as their number. Beautifully carved out of wood or sculpted from metal, the crosses range from three meters tall to the countless tiny examples hanging profusely upon the larger crosses.

– See more at: http://www.faithandfacts.com/christianity/lithuania%e2%80%99s-hill-of-crosses/#sthash.5XzaPUP9.dpuf

Petosky, Michigan

The history behind the Little Traverse Bay Crucifix

Each year, if the winter weather allows, Denny Jessick – an Emmet County Sheriff’s Office Marine and Snowmobile Officer – welcomes the public onto the ice of Little Traverse Bay to view a most unique sight that might otherwise go completely unnoticed in this region of beauty.

About 800 feet offshore and under 21 feet of water lies an Italian white marble crucifix, the only known freshwater-underwater crucifix. It came to Petoskey in 1962 in a round-about way, and has become a draw for divers and visitors alike ever since.

The 11-foot tall crucifix, with a 5-foot 5-inch figure of Jesus Christ, was placed in the Bay, near the Petoskey breakwall at Bayfront Park, by the Wyandotte-based Superior Marine Divers Club in 1962. Its original intent was to honor Charles Raymond, a Southgate diver who drowned in Torch Lake. Later, the club expanded the focus of the monument to memorialize all those who have perished at sea.

Its origins date back to the late 1950s, when a grieving mother and father from Rapson in Michigan’s Thumb area had it crafted in memory of their son, Gerald Schipinski. Gerald was 15-years-old in 1956 when he was accidentally killed by a shotgun on the family farm.

After being crafted in Italy, the cross was broken during shipping to the Rapson Catholic church; the family rejected the damaged crucifix and it was sold in an insurance sale to the Wyandotte dive club. The crucifix made its way to Little Traverse Bay and was first placed by the U.S. Icebreaker Sundew 1,200 feet off the Petoskey breakwall on Aug. 12, 1962.

The event drew hundreds of people and several dignitaries. The actor Lloyd Bridges was invited, but he sent a telegram to event organizers declining the invitation due to a heavy film-shooting schedule. Bridges’ telegram is kept in a thick binder of memorabilia preserved by Jessick and his wife, Susan.

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The city of Siauliai was founded in 1236 and controlled by Teutonic Knights during the 14th century. The tradition of placing crosses seems to date from this period and may have risen as a symbol of Lithuanian defiance toward foreign invaders. Since the medieval period, the Hill of Crosses has represented the peaceful resistance of Lithuanian Catholicism to oppression. In 1795, Siauliai was incorporated into Russia but was returned to Lithuania in 1918. Many crosses were erected upon the hill after the peasant uprising of 1831-63. By 1895, there were at least 150 large crosses, in 1914, 200, and by 1940 there were 400 large crosses surrounded by thousands of smaller ones.

crosses on a hillAfter being captured by Germany in World War II, the city suffered even more damage when Soviet Russia retook it at the war’s end. From 1944 until Lithuania’s independence in 1991, Siauliai was a part of the Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic. During the Soviet era, the pilgrimage to the Hill of Crosses became expression of Lithuanian nationalism. The Soviets repeatedly removed the crosses placed on the hill by Lithuanians.

The hill was leveled three times: during 1961, 1973 and 1975. The crosses were burned or turned into scrap metal, and the area was covered with waste and sewage. Following each of these agonizing experiences local inhabitants and pilgrims from all over Lithuania rapidly replaced crosses upon the sacred hill. In 1985, the Hill of Crosses finally found peace. The reputation of the hill has since spread all over the world and every year it is visited by many thousands of visitors.

The size and variety of crosses is as amazing as their number. Beautifully carved out of wood or sculpted from metal, the crosses range from three meters tall to the countless tiny examples hanging profusely upon the larger crosses.

– See more at: http://www.faithandfacts.com/christianity/lithuania%e2%80%99s-hill-of-crosses/#sthash.5XzaPUP9.dpuf

It is thought that crosses first began to appear at this spot in the thirteenth century, shortly after the city was founded.  Since then there have been varying numbers of crosses at the site.  It was in the 1831 uprising against Russia that the Hill of Crosses became political as well as purely religious.  Crosses were placed here to commemorate the dead and missing rebels of this period and by the beginning of the twentieth century there were 150 crosses. By 1940 there were 400. Today there are over 100,000.  read more here

The city of Siauliai was founded in 1236 and controlled by Teutonic Knights during the 14th century. The tradition of placing crosses seems to date from this period and may have risen as a symbol of Lithuanian defiance toward foreign invaders. Since the medieval period, the Hill of Crosses has represented the peaceful resistance of Lithuanian Catholicism to oppression. In 1795, Siauliai was incorporated into Russia but was returned to Lithuania in 1918. Many crosses were erected upon the hill after the peasant uprising of 1831-63. By 1895, there were at least 150 large crosses, in 1914, 200, and by 1940 there were 400 large crosses surrounded by thousands of smaller ones. – See more at: http://www.faithandfacts.com/christianity/lithuania%e2%80%99s-hill-of-crosses/#sthash.5XzaPUP9.dpuf

The city of Siauliai was founded in 1236 and controlled by Teutonic Knights during the 14th century. The tradition of placing crosses seems to date from this period and may have risen as a symbol of Lithuanian defiance toward foreign invaders. Since the medieval period, the Hill of Crosses has represented the peaceful resistance of Lithuanian Catholicism to oppression. In 1795, Siauliai was incorporated into Russia but was returned to Lithuania in 1918. Many crosses were erected upon the hill after the peasant uprising of 1831-63. By 1895, there were at least 150 large crosses, in 1914, 200, and by 1940 there were 400 large crosses surrounded by thousands of smaller ones.

crosses on a hillAfter being captured by Germany in World War II, the city suffered even more damage when Soviet Russia retook it at the war’s end. From 1944 until Lithuania’s independence in 1991, Siauliai was a part of the Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic. During the Soviet era, the pilgrimage to the Hill of Crosses became expression of Lithuanian nationalism. The Soviets repeatedly removed the crosses placed on the hill by Lithuanians.

The hill was leveled three times: during 1961, 1973 and 1975. The crosses were burned or turned into scrap metal, and the area was covered with waste and sewage. Following each of these agonizing experiences local inhabitants and pilgrims from all over Lithuania rapidly replaced crosses upon the sacred hill. In 1985, the Hill of Crosses finally found peace. The reputation of the hill has since spread all over the world and every year it is visited by many thousands of visitors.

The size and variety of crosses is as amazing as their number. Beautifully carved out of wood or sculpted from metal, the crosses range from three meters tall to the countless tiny examples hanging profusely upon the larger crosses.

– See more at: http://www.faithandfacts.com/christianity/lithuania%e2%80%99s-hill-of-crosses/#sthash.5XzaPUP9.dpuf

 

The city of Siauliai was founded in 1236 and controlled by Teutonic Knights during the 14th century. The tradition of placing crosses seems to date from this period and may have risen as a symbol of Lithuanian defiance toward foreign invaders. Since the medieval period, the Hill of Crosses has represented the peaceful resistance of Lithuanian Catholicism to oppression. In 1795, Siauliai was incorporated into Russia but was returned to Lithuania in 1918. Many crosses were erected upon the hill after the peasant uprising of 1831-63. By 1895, there were at least 150 large crosses, in 1914, 200, and by 1940 there were 400 large crosses surrounded by thousands of smaller ones.

crosses on a hillAfter being captured by Germany in World War II, the city suffered even more damage when Soviet Russia retook it at the war’s end. From 1944 until Lithuania’s independence in 1991, Siauliai was a part of the Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic. During the Soviet era, the pilgrimage to the Hill of Crosses became expression of Lithuanian nationalism. The Soviets repeatedly removed the crosses placed on the hill by Lithuanians.

The hill was leveled three times: during 1961, 1973 and 1975. The crosses were burned or turned into scrap metal, and the area was covered with waste and sewage. Following each of these agonizing experiences local inhabitants and pilgrims from all over Lithuania rapidly replaced crosses upon the sacred hill. In 1985, the Hill of Crosses finally found peace. The reputation of the hill has since spread all over the world and every year it is visited by many thousands of visitors.

The size and variety of crosses is as amazing as their number. Beautifully carved out of wood or sculpted from metal, the crosses range from three meters tall to the countless tiny examples hanging profusely upon the larger crosses.

– See more at: http://www.faithandfacts.com/christianity/lithuania%e2%80%99s-hill-of-crosses/#sthash.5XzaPUP9.dpuf

Hill of crosses

HAND HILL CROSS

hand hill cross

This cross is 10.6cm tall and is known as “the smallest cross on Dartmoor”.
I understand, however, that the Traveller’s Ford Cross is slightly smaller. That cross is in SX5978 but a more precise position is not given, though Explorer OL28 suggests a likely spot. (I say that it ‘is’ in square SX5978, but it has been removed at least twice and may no longer be there. Perhaps Hand Hill Cross is currently the smallest.)
I find it strange that people should want to place ever-smaller crosses on the moor. But I find it even more strange that other people should want to damage or steal them.

GROOM TEXAS

Groom texas

2nd Largest Cross in the Western Hemisphere

Bald Knob Cross Illinois

Bald Knob Cross Illinois

bald-knob-cross

bald-knob-cross

Christ the Redeemer, Rio De Janeiro

Christ the Redeemer, Rio De Janeiro

Granite Cross, Basílica de la Santa Cruz

Granite Cross, Basílica de la Santa Cruz

Dubrovnik, Croatia

Dubrovnik, Croatia

 

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THE Vest…..

Soviet steel breastplate SN-42. Armor = 2mm. Weight = 3.5 kg

Soviet steel breastplate SN-42. Armor = 2mm. Weight = 3.5 kg

I ran across an old picture of bulletproof vest testing.  The guy in the vest is either really brave or…….well kind of insane in my opinion.  This spurred me on to take a look at the history of the projectile proof vest which naturally led to the history of fire arms.  I had absolutely no Idea that explosive projectiles have been around for more than a thousand years.  I have included some wiki below:

Early Modern era

In 1538, Francesco Maria della Rovere commissioned Filippo Negroli to create a bulletproof vest. In 1561, Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor is recorded as testing his armor against gun-fire. Similarly, in 1590 Sir Henry Lee expected his Greenwich armor to be “pistol proof”. Its actual effectiveness was controversial at the time.[2] The etymology of “bullet” and the adjective form of “proof” in the late 16th century would suggest that the term “bulletproof” originated shortly thereafter.

During the English Civil War Oliver Cromwell‘s Ironside cavalry were equipped with Capeline helmets and musket-proof cuirasses which consisted of two layers of armor plate (in later studies involving X-ray a third layer was discovered which was placed in between the outer and inner layer). The outer layer was designed to absorb the bullet’s energy and the thicker inner layer stopped further penetration. The armor would be left badly dented but still serviceable.[3] One of the first recorded descriptions of soft armor use was found in medieval Japan, with the armor having been manufactured from silk.[4]

Polish inventor Jan Szczepanik. On the photo - the first (and success) test of the invention (1901) done by Mr. Borzykowski

Polish inventor Jan Szczepanik. On the photo – the first (and success) test of the invention (1901) done by Mr. Borzykowski

Industrial era

One of the first commercially sold bulletproof armour was produced by a tailor in Dublin, Ireland in the 1840s. The Cork Examiner reported on his line of business in December 1847:[5]

The daily melancholy announcements of assassination that are now disgracing the country, and the murderers permitted to walk quietly away and defy the law, have induced me to get constructed a garment, shot and ball proof, so that every man can be protected, and enabled to return the fire of the assassin, and thus soon put a stop to the cowardly conduct which has deprived society of so many excellent and valuable lives, spreading terror and desolation through the country. I hope in a few days to have a specimen garment on view at my warerooms.

Another soft ballistic vest, Myeonje baegab, was invented in Joseon, Korea in the 1860s shortly after the French campaign against Korea. Heungseon Daewongun ordered development of bullet-proof armor because of increasing threats from Western armies. Kim Gi-Doo and Gang Yoon found that cotton could protect against bullets if 10 layers of cotton fabric were used. The vests were used in battle during the United States expedition to Korea, when the US Navy attacked Ganghwa Island in 1871. The US Navy captured one of the vests and took it to the US, where it was stored at the Smithsonian Museum until 2007. The vest has since been sent back to Korea and is currently on display to the public.[citation needed]

Testing of new bulletproof vests, 1923

Testing of new bulletproof vests, 1923

Simple ballistic armor was sometimes constructed by criminals. During the 1880s, a gang of Australian bushrangers led by Ned Kelly made basic armour from plough blades. By this time the Victorian Government had a reward for the capture of a member of the Kelly Gang at £8,000 (equivalent to $2 million Australian dollars in 2005). One of the stated aims of Kelly was the establishment of a Republic in North East Victoria. Each of the four Kelly gang members had fought a siege at a hotel clad in suits of armour made from the mouldboards of ploughs. The maker’s stamp (Lennon Number 2 Type) was found inside several of the plates. The men used the armour to cover their torsos, upper arms, and upper legs, and was worn with a helmet.

The suits were roughly made on a creek bed using a makeshift forge and a stringy-bark log as a muffled anvil. They had a mass of around 44 kg (96 lb), making the wearer a spectacular sight yet proved too unwieldy during a police raid at Glenrowan. Their armour deflected many hits with none penetrating, but eventually was of no use as the suits lacked protection for the legs and hands.

Ned Kelly armour, located at the State Library of Victoria, Melbourne, Australia,

Ned Kelly armour, located at the State Library of Victoria, Melbourne, Australia,

World War I german Infantrie Panzer, 1918

World War I german Infantrie Panzer, 1918

In 1881, Tombstone physician George E. Goodfellow noticed that a Faro dealer Luke Short who was shot was saved by his silk handkerchief in his breast pocket that prevented the bullet from penetrating.[6][7] In 1887, he wrote an article titled Impenetrability of Silk to Bullets[8] for the Southern California Practitioner documenting the first known instance of bulletproof fabric. He experimented with[9] silk vests resembling medieval gambesons, which used 18 to 30 layers of silk fabric to protect the wearers from penetration.

Fr. Kazimierz Żegleń used Goodfellow’s findings to develop a bulletproof vest made of silk fabric at the end of the 19th century, which could stop the relatively slow rounds from black powder handguns. The vests cost $800 USD each in 1914, a small fortune at the time the modern day equivalent of $18,710 USD. On 28 June 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, was wearing a silk bulletproof vest when he was attacked by a gun-wielding assassin. He was shot in the neck and the vest did not protect him.

Two American GIs wearing M1951 bullet-proof vests on Triangle Hill

Two American GIs wearing M1951 bullet-proof vests on Triangle Hill

Marines with Security Company, Combat Logistics Battalion 4, Combat Logistics Regiment 3, 3rd Marine Logistics Group, adjust Lance Cpl. Andrew Best’s Modular Tactical Vest

Marines with Security Company, Combat Logistics Battalion 4, Combat Logistics Regiment 3, 3rd Marine Logistics Group, adjust Lance Cpl. Andrew Best’s Modular Tactical Vest

A similar vest, made by Polish inventor Jan Szczepanik in 1901, saved the life of Alfonso XIII of Spain when he was shot by an attacker. By 1900, gangsters were wearing $800 silk vests to protect themselves.[10]

 

This all naturally led me to the history of firearms which I have included a bit of below:

The direct ancestor of the firearm is the fire lance, a black-powder–filled tube attached to the end of a spear and used as a flamethrower (not to be confused with the Byzantine flamethrower); shrapnel was sometimes placed in the barrel so that it would fly out together with the flames.[4][5] The earliest depiction of a gunpowder weapon is the illustration of a fire-lance on a mid-12th century silk banner from Dunhuang.[6] The De’an Shoucheng Lu, an account of the siege of De’an in 1132, records that Song forces used fire-lances against the Jurchens.[7]

old Chinese Hand Cannon on display at the Shaanxi history museum in Xi'An, China. The placard reads Bronze firearm, Yuan dynasty (1271-1368 ACE)

old Chinese Hand Cannon on display at the Shaanxi history museum in Xi’An, China. The placard reads Bronze firearm, Yuan dynasty (1271-1368 ACE)

In due course, the proportion of saltpeter in the propellant was increased to maximise its explosive power.[5] To better withstand that explosive power, the paper and bamboo of which fire-lance barrels were originally made came to be replaced by metal.[4] And to take full advantage of that power, the shrapnel came to be replaced by projectiles whose size and shape filled the barrel more closely.[5] With this, we have the three basic features of the gun: a barrel made of metal, high-nitrate gunpowder, and a projectile which totally occludes the muzzle so that the powder charge exerts its full potential in propellant effect.[8]

The earliest depiction of a gun is a sculpture from a cave in Sichuan dating to the 12th century of a figure carrying a vase-shaped bombard with flames and a cannonball coming out of it.[1][9] The oldest surviving gun, made of bronze, has been dated to 1288 because it was discovered at a site in modern-day Acheng District where the Yuan Shi records that battles were fought at that time; Li Ting, a military commander of Jurchen descent, led foot-soldiers armed with guns—including a Korean brigade—in battle to suppress the rebellion of the Christian Mongol prince Nayan.[10]

German grenade rifles from the 16th century (wheellock) and 18th century (flintlock) in the Bayerisches Nationalmuseum, München

German grenade rifles from the 16th century (wheellock) and 18th century (flintlock) in the Bayerisches Nationalmuseum, München

Guns - Safavid dynasty- Iran (Persia) - 17AD

Guns – Safavid dynasty- Iran (Persia) – 17AD

I know that firearms in our society today are a hot point in many conversations and social circles.  I create this post solely as a purpose of history to the devices.  I sincerely hope you enjoy, please be sure to let me know your thoughts 🙂

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Preserving amatuer WWII photos

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If you have seen our blog before, you know that we just love old  “stuff”!  In our many auctions and moves and relocations, we have been carting around this one box with old papers in it.  We have been carting it around for a couple of years now!  Recently, while going thru some things we started examining this box of “stuff”.  In our minds, we struck gold.  We found an envelope which contained several old negatives.  upon examining them we found out they are shots from Europe during WWII!

I have no idea who these gentlemen are, but I am familiar with what they went thru and what they were fighting for!  I want to share these images as a way of honoring not only these men, but all men and women who have fought on any side of any war!  War is such a terrible thing and while necessary sometimes, it is never something to be taken lightly!  I hope you enjoy these photos, I wish I could give you more information on them but everyone in them is probably passed on by now.

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Comanche, Only US Army Survivor From Little Big Horn Battle

You are looking at an artistic picture of "Comanche," the only survivor of the Custer Massacre, 1876. History of the horse and regimental orders of the 7th Cavalry as to the care of "Comanche" as long as he shall live. It was created in 1887

You are looking at an artistic picture of “Comanche,” the only survivor of the Custer Massacre, 1876. History of the horse and regimental orders of the 7th Cavalry as to the care of “Comanche” as long as he shall live. It was created in 1887

COMANCHE

American Icon

It is the afternoon of 27 June 1876, on the Little Bighorn River  in southeastern Montana.  Members of the besieged group of soldiers from the  Reno Hill entrenchment sadly explore the scene of “sickening, ghastly horror” on Custer Hill.  They now know the answer to the question that so many had repeatedly asked two days before…”Where’s Custer?”

As they walked among the bloating, decaying bodies of their fallen comrades, all was still.  As the cavalrymen bowed their heads in silent prayer before beginning the odious task of burying the dead, the silence was abruptly broken by the faint whinny of a horse.  As the men looked up and searched the broken terrain with weary, tearful eyes, down by the river a horse was struggling to get to its feet.    Several of the men recognized the horse because of its peculiar buckskin-like color.  It was Comanche, the favorite mount of Capt. Myles Keogh, who had

Myles Keogh

Myles Keogh (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

valiantly rallied the men of “I” Company right up to the end, when they were overwhelmed by the charge of warriors under Crazy Horse and Gall.  The horse was on its haunches, seemingly too weak to move any further.  He had apparently sustained at least seven wounds, and his coat was matted with dried blood and soil.  CPT Nowlan ordered the men to get water for the horse from the river.  Several other troopers coaxed the horse onto its feet and led it away.  The farrier field dressed the wounds.  Comanche marched with the command to the junction of the Little Bighorn and Bighorn Rivers, and was loaded aboard the steamer “Far West” with the battle casualties, heading home to Fort Lincoln.  Comanche never again was to charge to the sound of the bugle. For the next 15 years he served as the spirit of the Seventh Cavalry supporting them throughout the remainder of the Indian Wars.  Symbolically, he died in 1891, soon after The Wounded Knee Conflict, established to be the end of major hostilities between the Native Americans and the military.  TAPS, for an old soldier who served his country  well, in so many ways.

A fully recovered Comanche at Fort Lincoln after the Battle

Comanche is now remembered as the only surviving member of LTC George A. Custer‘s immediate command at the Battle of the Little Bighorn.

He has always been a symbol of the role of the U.S. Cavalry in the taming of the great plains during the era of  western expansion. When he died in 1891 his remains were preserved for eternity. Comanche now resides in the Dyche Natural History Museum on the campus of the University of Kansas at Lawrence. He resides in a specially designed humidity-controlled glass enclosure. 

Comanche joined the 7th Cavalry on April 3, 1868. He had been captured somewhere on the southern plains and brought, along with other horses, to a remount station in St. Louis, Missouri.  There, he was purchased by the Army for the existing rate of $90.  Comanche had his initial breaking-in at the remount station and then was shipped with a group of other horses to Fort Leavenworth. There, Comanche had his introduction to the 7th Cavalry when he was chosen to be among the 41 horses that LT Tom Custer (brother of the General) selected to be loaded on a train bound for Ellis Station, where the 7th was encamped. He arrived at the encampment on May 19, 1868, a little over one month after joining the army.  It was here that Comanche caught the eye of Capt Keogh, who was looking for a replacement for a horse that had been shot from under him in a skirmish with Indians.  After eyeing the new “recruits” for several minutes, something must have made Comanche stand out as having the potential to be a good cavalry mount.  Surely officers had first choice in selecting a horse for their use, and Keogh quickly ordered Comanche to be his mount.  Keogh may have purchased Comanche from the army. Be that as it may, they were inseparable until that fateful day in June, 1876.

Photograph taken in 1879 during U.S. Army re-b...

Photograph taken in 1879 during U.S. Army re-burial visit to the Custer battlefield. The expedition was led by Captain George K. Sanderson, seen here in the foreground looking at the recently erected monument to Myles Keogh and the fallen members of Company I, 7th US Cavalry. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

There is some controversy as to how Comanche got his name. The most widely accepted story is that on September 13, 1868 Capt Keogh was involved in a skirmish with a band of Comanche Indians. During the fight the horse was wounded by an arrow in the right hind quarter. The arrow was later removed, and the wound healed. After the battle, a trooper who witnessed the incident claimed that when the arrow struck, the horse “yelled just like a Comanche” If this were true, then Comanche would have been in Keogh’s possession for over four months without having been assigned a name.  This seems to be an unlikely scenario, as just with a newborn infant, a name or method of identifying the child is quickly established.  Another story might explain the naming delay.  So it goes, Keogh was on a scouting mission near Fort Larned, Kansas.  During a skirmish with the Comanches, Keogh’s horse was killed.  Supposedly his Lt. dismounted one of the enlisted men and turned the mount over to Keogh, who kept the horse from that point on. The horse was then named Comanche, and became Keogh’s favorite mount from that point on. It is stated that at that time, with the exception of the officers’ horses, it was not customary to give names to cavalry horses.
What did Comanche look like? As one inspects the old photos of Comanche, he appears to be dark in color, typical of the bay mounts used by the cavalry.  This aberration of his true color, variously described as “claybank,” “light bay” or  “buckskin dun” is probably a function of the level of sophistication of frontier photography. On July 25, 1887, 2LT James D. Thomas, Acting Adjutant of 7th Cavalry at Ft. Meade, Dakota Territory, certified a description of Comanche prior to transferring his care to CPT Henry J. Nowlan, 7th Cavalry:Name: Comanche
Age: 6 years(25 years at time of transfer)
Height: 15 hands
Weight: 925 pounds
Color: Buckskin
Condition: Unserviceable
Date of Purchase: April 3, 1868
By Whom: (left blank)
Cost: $90.00
Purchased: St. Louis, Missouri
Remarks: excused from all duties per G.O. No. 7 April 10, 1878. Ridden by CPT Keogh in Battle of Little Bighorn River, M.T. June 25, 1876
Comanche and Keogh served with “I” Company and Keogh for the remainder of his active career. However, due to deployments of “I” Company away from the main regiment and leaves of absence taken by Keogh, Comanche missed the major battles engaged in by the unit. At the time of the summer, 1867 campaign that included the Kidder Massacre, Keogh was commanding officer at Fort Wallace. During the Washita campaign, Keogh was on GEN Sully’s staff, assigned to Fort Harker. At the time of the 1873 Yellowstone Expedition, Keogh was serving on detached duty with the International Boundary Commission at Fort Totten, Minnesota, near Canada. Keogh was on leave, visiting his home land, and therefore was not a part of the 1874 Black Hills expedition. The latter proved to be more of a pleasure trip, since no significant engagement with Indians was made.
It took almost a year for Comanche to recover from his wounds. His care was always under the watchful eye of Gustave Korn, the farrier, assigned to him by CPT Nowlan. Comanche quickly became the mascot of the 7th at Ft. Lincoln, and legend has it that the daughter of the commander (COL Sturgis), convinced CPT Nowlan to let her ride Comanche about the post. Then one day the daughter of another officer requested and was granted permission to ride Comanche, and when Sturgis’s daughter became aware of this she became so enraged that her special status had been breached that she caused a lot of trouble around the Sturgis household. This, more than anything else probably led to COL Sturgis issuing G.O.[General Orders] No. 7. In part, this stated that “…a special and comfortable stall is fitted up for him, and he will not be ridden by any person whatsoever under any circumstances, nor will he be put to any kind of work.” Comanche could be used in parades, draped in mourning and led by a mounted trooper of Troop I.
Comanche at Fort Riley, Kansas

Comanche at Fort Riley, Kansas

From that point on, Comanche led a free and peaceful life. he was allowed the freedom of the Post, the only living thing that wandered at will over the parade grounds at the fort without a reprimand from a commanding officer.  When the bugle sounded “formation,” Comanche would trot out to his place in front of the line of Troop I. He would be given sugar cubes on demand at the door of the officers’ quarters and then saunter on down to the enlisted men’s canteen where a specially placed bucket of beer awaited him.  Gustave Korn and Comanche became inseparable.  Comanche would follow Korn everywhere. When the unit returned to Ft. Riley, Kansas, it is stated that Korn was visiting a lady friend in the nearby town of Junction City.  When Korn did not return to the base to feed and groom Comanche for the evening, that the horse looked all over the base for Korn, finally going directly to the house of the girlfriend to escort Korn back to the Post. When Korn was killed at Wounded Knee in 1890, Comanche’s health began to slowly deteriorate. He died on November 7, 1891.

Comanche preserved forever at the University of Kansas

The officers and men of the 7th Cavalry were heartbroken. One of them suggested that Comanche be preserved forever by being mounted and kept with the unit.  A famous professor at the University of Kansas Museum of Natural History was summoned to the Fort. He agreed to preserve Comanche for $400 and the right to display the horse at the upcoming Exposition in Chicago in 1893. Later, when for reasons still not clear, the bill was not paid and Dyche agreed to keep Comanche in lieu of payment. Comanche still stands there today for all to see – the “sole survivor of Custer’s command at the Little Bighorn.

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Why I think people are stupid…..

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It really is not their fault, do you know who Charles E. Perkins is?  Before you delve in to this because it is prety long, you can get the short version with this video!

Here is the rest of the story!  Please do your own research, you will learn why the masses walk like zombies thru the grocery store.  I challenge you to do everything you can to eliminate flouride for six months, if you see no changes, it will still be there for you!

 

Water fluoridation has been a controversial topic for a long time, but much of the general population tend to believe adding fluoride to the water supply is beneficial for everyone. While there is some debate about the intent behind the conspiracy to fluoridate water, most theorists agree that this involuntary medication is toxic.

The first record documenting the fluoridation of drinking water is from Nazi-era Germany during the Second World War. According to Joseph Borkin, it was added to the drinking water in prison camps with the stated reasoning: “mass-medicating water with sodium fluoride was to sterilize humans and force the people in their concentration camps into calm submission.”

Joseph Borkin: The crime and punishment of I.G. Farben >>

This form of chemical medication spread quickly. When the Russians and Germans agreed to split Poland prior to the onset of the war, they shared strategies and information with one another on how to control the Polish territory and people more effectively. The Russians were very impressed with the theories behind water fluoridation, and therefore enacted their own programs.

The conspiracy theories surrounding water fluoridation derive almost exclusively from the immediate post-World War Two period when this information was first introduced to the American public by notable chemists.

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Fluoride is a poison

Fact, Fluoride was one of the main chemicals used in the production of the atomic bomb, millions of tons were used and was one of the most toxic chemicals known at the time.(4)

Fluoride is not safe in any dose and is used in pesticides, tooth paste and put in most drinking water supplies. It causes brain and bone damage.

The truth about water fluoridation.

Below from CHARLES E. PERKINS, Chemist, a letter to the Lee Foundation for Nutritional Research, Milwaukee Wisconsin, on 2 October 1954

“I have your letter of September 29 asking for further documentation regarding a statement made in my book, The Truth About Water Fluoridation, to the effect that the idea of water fluoridation was brought to England from Russia by the Russian Communist Kreminoff. “In the 1930`s, Hitler and the German Nazi`s envisioned a world to be dominated and controlled by a Nazi philosophy of pan-Germanism. The German chemists worked out a very ingenious and far-reaching plan of mass-control which was submitted to and adopted by the German General Staff. This plan was to control the population in any given area through mass medication of drinking water supplies. By this method they could control the population in whole areas, reduce population by water medication that would produce sterility in women, and so on. In this scheme of mass-control, sodium fluoride occupied a prominent place. …

“Repeated doses of infinitesimal amounts of fluoride will in time reduce an individuals power to resist domination, by slowly poisoning and narcotizing a certain area of the brain, thus making him submissive to the will of those who wish to govern him. [A convenient light lobotomy]

“The real reason behind water fluoridation is not to benefit children`s teeth. If this were the real reason there are many ways in which it could be done that are much easier, cheaper, and far more effective. The real purpose behind water fluoridation is to reduce the resistance of the masses to domination and control and loss of liberty.

“When the Nazis under Hitler decided to go into Poland, both the German General Staff and the Russian General Staff exchanged scientific and military ideas, plans, and personnel, and the scheme of mass control through water medication was seized upon by the Russian Communists because it fitted ideally into their plan to communize the world. …

“I was told of this entire scheme by a German chemist who was an official of the great IG Farben chemical industries and was also prominent in the Nazi movement at the time. I say this with all the earnestness and sincerity of a scientist who has spent nearly 20 years` research into the chemistry, biochemistry, physiology and pathology of fluorine–any person who drinks artificially fluoridated water for a period of one year or more will never again be the same person mentally or physically.”

 

Dr. Emmanuel H. Bronner, a former captive in a Nazi prison camp, attempted to expose the global plot to poison the water supplies through several publications.

“As a research chemist of established standing, I built within the past 22 years, 3 American chemical plants and licensed 6 of my 53 patents. Based on my years of practical experience in the health-food and chemical field, let me warn: fluoridation of drinking water is criminal insanity, sure national suicide. Don’t do it… Even in small quantities, sodium fluoride is a deadly poison to which no effective antidote has been found. Every exterminator knows that it is the most efficient rat-killer… Sodium fluoride is entirely different from organic calcium fluoro-phosphate needed by our bodies and provided by nature.”

Read the Full Article
Dr. E.H. Bronner, The Catholic Mirror, 1952

If you find these guys to be old hat, try out

DR PHYLLIS MULLENIX

January, 1998.

Phyllis Mullenix, Ph.D., formerly of Harvard University experienced the wrath of the industry when she walked blindly into the fluoride fray as part of her research program with Harvard’s Department of Neuropathology and Psychiatry. While holding a dual appointment to Harvard and the Forsyth Dental Research Institute, Dr. Mullenix established the Department of Toxicology at Forsyth for the purpose of investigating the environmental impact of substances that were used in dentistry. During that undertaking she was also directed by the institute’s head to investigate fluoride toxicity ……

For her toxicology studies Dr. Mullenix designed a computer pattern recognition system that has been described by other scientists as nothing short of elegant in its ability to study fluoride’s effects on the neuromotor functions of rats.

THE “MIRACLE OF FLUORIDE” -or- A DIRTY INDUSTRY?

“By about 1990 I had gathered enough data from the test and control animals,” Mullenix continues, “to realize that fluoride doesn’t look clean.” When she reviewed that data she realized that something was seriously affecting her test animals. They had all (except the control group) been administered doses of fluoride sufficient to bring their blood levels up to the same as those that had caused dental fluorosis [a brittleness and staining of the teeth] in thousands of children. Up to this point, Mullenix explained, fluorosis was widely thought to be the only effect of excessive fluoridation.

The scientist’s first hint that she may not be navigating friendly waters came when she was ordered to present her findings to the National Institute of Dental Research (NIDR) [a division of NIH, the National Institute of Health]. “That’s when the ‘fun’ started,” she said, “I had no idea what I was getting into. I walked into the main corridors there and all over the walls was ‘The Miracle of Fluoride’. That was my first real kick-in-the-pants as to what was actually going on.” The NIH display, she said, actually made fun of and ridiculed those that were against fluoridation. “I thought, ‘Oh great!’ Here’s the main NIH hospital talking about the ‘Miracle of Fluoride’ and I’m giving a seminar to the NIDR telling them that fluoride is neurotoxic!”

What Dr. Mullenix presented at the seminar that, in reality, sounded the death knell of her career was that:

“The fluoride pattern of behavioral problems matches up with the same results of administering radiation and chemotherapy [to cancer patients]. All of these really nasty treatments that are used clinically in cancer therapy are well known to cause I.Q. deficits in children. That’s one of the best studied effects they know of. The behavioral pattern that results from the use of fluoride matches that produced by cancer treatment that causes a reduction in intelligence.”

At a meeting with dental industry representatives immediately following her presentation, Mullenix was bluntly asked if she was saying that their company’s products were lowering the I.Q. of children? “And I told them, ‘basically, yes.'”

The documents obtained by authors Griffiths and Bryson seem to add yet another voice of corroboration to the reduced intelligence effects of fluoride. “New epidemiological evidence from China adds support,” the writers claim, “showing a correlation between low dose fluoride exposure and diminished I.Q. in children.”

Then in 1994, after refining her research and findings, Dr. Mullenix presented her results to the Journal of Neurotoxicology and Teratology, considered probably the world’s most respected publication in that field. Three days after she joyfully announced to the Forsyth Institute that she had been accepted for publication by the journal, she was dismissed from her position. What followed was a complete evaporation of all grants and funding for any of Mullenix’s research. What that means in the left-brain world of scientific research, which is fueled by grants of government and corporate capital, is the equivalent to an academic burial. Her letter of dismissal from the Forsyth Institute stated as their reason for that action that her work was not “dentally related.” [Fluoride research–not dentally related?] The institute’s director stated, according to Mullenix, “they didn’t consider the safety or the toxicity of fluoride as being their kind of science.” Of course, a logical question begs itself at this last statement: why was Dr. Mullenix assigned the study of fluoride toxicity in the first place if it was not “their kind of science”?

Subsequently, she was continually hounded by both Forsyth and the NIH as to the identity of the journal in which her research was to be published. She told The WINDS that she refused to disclose that information because she knew the purpose of this continual interrogation was so that they could attempt to quash its publication.

Almost immediately following her dismissal, Dr. Mullenix said, the Forsyth Institute received a quarter-million dollar grant from the Colgate company. Coincidence or reward?

Her findings clearly detailed the developmental effects of fluoride, pre- and postnatal. Doses administered before birth produced marked hyperactivity in offspring. Postnatal administration caused the infant rats to exhibit what Dr. Mullenix calls the “couch potato syndrome”–a malaise or absence of initiative and activity. One need only observe the numerous children being dosed with Ritalin as treatment for their hyperactivity to draw logical correlations.

Following her dismissal, the scientist’s equipment and computers, designed specifically for the studies, were mysteriously damaged and destroyed by water leakage before she could remove them from Forsyth. Coincidence?

Dr. Mullenix was then given an unfunded research position at Children’s Hospital in Boston, but with no equipment and no money–what for? “The people at Children’s Hospital, for heaven’s sake, came right out and said they were scared because they knew how important the fluoride issue was,” Mullenix said. “Even at Forsyth they told me I was endangering funds for the institution if I published that information.” It has become clear to such as Dr. Mullenix et al, that money, not truth, drives science–even at the expense of the health and lives of the nation’s citizens.

“I got into science because it was fun,” she said, “and I would like to go back and do further studies, but I no longer have any faith in the integrity of the system. I find research is utterly controlled.” If one harbors any doubt that large sums of corporate money and political clout can really provide sufficient influence to induce scientists and respected physicians to endorse potentially harmful treatment for their patients, consider the results published in a January 8th article of the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM). The Journal revealed their survey of doctors in favor of, and against, a particular drug that has been proven harmful (in this case calcium blockers shown to significantly increase the risk of breast cancer in older women). “Our results,” the Journal said, “demonstrate a strong association between authors’ published positions on the safety of calcium-channel antagonists and their financial relationships with pharmaceutical manufacturers.”

When The WINDS asked Dr. Mullenix where she planned to take her research, she said that she is not hopeful that any place exists that isn’t “afraid of fluoride or printing the truth.”

The end result of the dark odyssey of Phyllis Mullenix, Ph.D., and her journey through the nightmare of the fluoride industry is, essentially, a ruined career of a brilliant scientist because hers was not “their kind of science”.

Geronimo

Geronimo was not just what you say before jumping out of a tree, or sledding down a hill which was larger than felt safe. Geronimo was actually one of the most feared Indian War Chiefs ever! After The Mexican Army killed his mother, wife and children, he became a leader in the Indian Wars and fought against both the American and Mexican armies.

Geronimo (Mescalero-Chiricahua: “one who yawns”; (June 1829 – February 17, 1909) was a prominent leader of the Bedonkohe Apache who fought against Mexico and the United States for their expansion into Apache tribal lands for several decades during the Apache Wars. “Geronimo” was the name given to him during a battle with Mexican soldiers. His Chiricahua name is often rendered as Goyathlay or Goyahkla

After an attack by Mexican soldiers killed his mother, wife and three children in 1851, Geronimo joined revenge attacks on the Mexicans. During his career as a war chief, he was notorious for consistently leading raids upon Mexican provinces and towns, and later against American locations across Arizona, New Mexico and western Texas.

In 1886 Geronimo surrendered to U.S. authorities after a lengthy pursuit. As a prisoner of war in old age he became a celebrity and appeared in fairsbut was never allowed to return to the land of his birth. He later regretted his surrender and claimed the conditions he made had been ignored. Geronimo died in 1909 from complications of pneumonia at Fort Sill, Oklahoma.

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