THE Vest…..

Soviet steel breastplate SN-42. Armor = 2mm. Weight = 3.5 kg

Soviet steel breastplate SN-42. Armor = 2mm. Weight = 3.5 kg

I ran across an old picture of bulletproof vest testing.  The guy in the vest is either really brave or…….well kind of insane in my opinion.  This spurred me on to take a look at the history of the projectile proof vest which naturally led to the history of fire arms.  I had absolutely no Idea that explosive projectiles have been around for more than a thousand years.  I have included some wiki below:

Early Modern era

In 1538, Francesco Maria della Rovere commissioned Filippo Negroli to create a bulletproof vest. In 1561, Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor is recorded as testing his armor against gun-fire. Similarly, in 1590 Sir Henry Lee expected his Greenwich armor to be “pistol proof”. Its actual effectiveness was controversial at the time.[2] The etymology of “bullet” and the adjective form of “proof” in the late 16th century would suggest that the term “bulletproof” originated shortly thereafter.

During the English Civil War Oliver Cromwell‘s Ironside cavalry were equipped with Capeline helmets and musket-proof cuirasses which consisted of two layers of armor plate (in later studies involving X-ray a third layer was discovered which was placed in between the outer and inner layer). The outer layer was designed to absorb the bullet’s energy and the thicker inner layer stopped further penetration. The armor would be left badly dented but still serviceable.[3] One of the first recorded descriptions of soft armor use was found in medieval Japan, with the armor having been manufactured from silk.[4]

Polish inventor Jan Szczepanik. On the photo - the first (and success) test of the invention (1901) done by Mr. Borzykowski

Polish inventor Jan Szczepanik. On the photo – the first (and success) test of the invention (1901) done by Mr. Borzykowski

Industrial era

One of the first commercially sold bulletproof armour was produced by a tailor in Dublin, Ireland in the 1840s. The Cork Examiner reported on his line of business in December 1847:[5]

The daily melancholy announcements of assassination that are now disgracing the country, and the murderers permitted to walk quietly away and defy the law, have induced me to get constructed a garment, shot and ball proof, so that every man can be protected, and enabled to return the fire of the assassin, and thus soon put a stop to the cowardly conduct which has deprived society of so many excellent and valuable lives, spreading terror and desolation through the country. I hope in a few days to have a specimen garment on view at my warerooms.

Another soft ballistic vest, Myeonje baegab, was invented in Joseon, Korea in the 1860s shortly after the French campaign against Korea. Heungseon Daewongun ordered development of bullet-proof armor because of increasing threats from Western armies. Kim Gi-Doo and Gang Yoon found that cotton could protect against bullets if 10 layers of cotton fabric were used. The vests were used in battle during the United States expedition to Korea, when the US Navy attacked Ganghwa Island in 1871. The US Navy captured one of the vests and took it to the US, where it was stored at the Smithsonian Museum until 2007. The vest has since been sent back to Korea and is currently on display to the public.[citation needed]

Testing of new bulletproof vests, 1923

Testing of new bulletproof vests, 1923

Simple ballistic armor was sometimes constructed by criminals. During the 1880s, a gang of Australian bushrangers led by Ned Kelly made basic armour from plough blades. By this time the Victorian Government had a reward for the capture of a member of the Kelly Gang at £8,000 (equivalent to $2 million Australian dollars in 2005). One of the stated aims of Kelly was the establishment of a Republic in North East Victoria. Each of the four Kelly gang members had fought a siege at a hotel clad in suits of armour made from the mouldboards of ploughs. The maker’s stamp (Lennon Number 2 Type) was found inside several of the plates. The men used the armour to cover their torsos, upper arms, and upper legs, and was worn with a helmet.

The suits were roughly made on a creek bed using a makeshift forge and a stringy-bark log as a muffled anvil. They had a mass of around 44 kg (96 lb), making the wearer a spectacular sight yet proved too unwieldy during a police raid at Glenrowan. Their armour deflected many hits with none penetrating, but eventually was of no use as the suits lacked protection for the legs and hands.

Ned Kelly armour, located at the State Library of Victoria, Melbourne, Australia,

Ned Kelly armour, located at the State Library of Victoria, Melbourne, Australia,

World War I german Infantrie Panzer, 1918

World War I german Infantrie Panzer, 1918

In 1881, Tombstone physician George E. Goodfellow noticed that a Faro dealer Luke Short who was shot was saved by his silk handkerchief in his breast pocket that prevented the bullet from penetrating.[6][7] In 1887, he wrote an article titled Impenetrability of Silk to Bullets[8] for the Southern California Practitioner documenting the first known instance of bulletproof fabric. He experimented with[9] silk vests resembling medieval gambesons, which used 18 to 30 layers of silk fabric to protect the wearers from penetration.

Fr. Kazimierz Żegleń used Goodfellow’s findings to develop a bulletproof vest made of silk fabric at the end of the 19th century, which could stop the relatively slow rounds from black powder handguns. The vests cost $800 USD each in 1914, a small fortune at the time the modern day equivalent of $18,710 USD. On 28 June 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, was wearing a silk bulletproof vest when he was attacked by a gun-wielding assassin. He was shot in the neck and the vest did not protect him.

Two American GIs wearing M1951 bullet-proof vests on Triangle Hill

Two American GIs wearing M1951 bullet-proof vests on Triangle Hill

Marines with Security Company, Combat Logistics Battalion 4, Combat Logistics Regiment 3, 3rd Marine Logistics Group, adjust Lance Cpl. Andrew Best’s Modular Tactical Vest

Marines with Security Company, Combat Logistics Battalion 4, Combat Logistics Regiment 3, 3rd Marine Logistics Group, adjust Lance Cpl. Andrew Best’s Modular Tactical Vest

A similar vest, made by Polish inventor Jan Szczepanik in 1901, saved the life of Alfonso XIII of Spain when he was shot by an attacker. By 1900, gangsters were wearing $800 silk vests to protect themselves.[10]

 

This all naturally led me to the history of firearms which I have included a bit of below:

The direct ancestor of the firearm is the fire lance, a black-powder–filled tube attached to the end of a spear and used as a flamethrower (not to be confused with the Byzantine flamethrower); shrapnel was sometimes placed in the barrel so that it would fly out together with the flames.[4][5] The earliest depiction of a gunpowder weapon is the illustration of a fire-lance on a mid-12th century silk banner from Dunhuang.[6] The De’an Shoucheng Lu, an account of the siege of De’an in 1132, records that Song forces used fire-lances against the Jurchens.[7]

old Chinese Hand Cannon on display at the Shaanxi history museum in Xi'An, China. The placard reads Bronze firearm, Yuan dynasty (1271-1368 ACE)

old Chinese Hand Cannon on display at the Shaanxi history museum in Xi’An, China. The placard reads Bronze firearm, Yuan dynasty (1271-1368 ACE)

In due course, the proportion of saltpeter in the propellant was increased to maximise its explosive power.[5] To better withstand that explosive power, the paper and bamboo of which fire-lance barrels were originally made came to be replaced by metal.[4] And to take full advantage of that power, the shrapnel came to be replaced by projectiles whose size and shape filled the barrel more closely.[5] With this, we have the three basic features of the gun: a barrel made of metal, high-nitrate gunpowder, and a projectile which totally occludes the muzzle so that the powder charge exerts its full potential in propellant effect.[8]

The earliest depiction of a gun is a sculpture from a cave in Sichuan dating to the 12th century of a figure carrying a vase-shaped bombard with flames and a cannonball coming out of it.[1][9] The oldest surviving gun, made of bronze, has been dated to 1288 because it was discovered at a site in modern-day Acheng District where the Yuan Shi records that battles were fought at that time; Li Ting, a military commander of Jurchen descent, led foot-soldiers armed with guns—including a Korean brigade—in battle to suppress the rebellion of the Christian Mongol prince Nayan.[10]

German grenade rifles from the 16th century (wheellock) and 18th century (flintlock) in the Bayerisches Nationalmuseum, München

German grenade rifles from the 16th century (wheellock) and 18th century (flintlock) in the Bayerisches Nationalmuseum, München

Guns - Safavid dynasty- Iran (Persia) - 17AD

Guns – Safavid dynasty- Iran (Persia) – 17AD

I know that firearms in our society today are a hot point in many conversations and social circles.  I create this post solely as a purpose of history to the devices.  I sincerely hope you enjoy, please be sure to let me know your thoughts 🙂

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Africans

Zulu Shampoo and Bug Removal in 1903

Zulu Shampoo and Bug Removal in 1903\

Africa is such a diverse continent.  There are so many different types of tribes, peoples, landscapes and animals.  I am sure I could easily create a whole blog for each category and never come close to exposing the richness of the dark continent!  I have included photos from various times depicting various scenes.  With Africa being a central part of WWII, the continent was deeply embroiled and forever changed by the conflict.  Be sure to let me know your favorite or most moving photo, I always appreciate the feedback.  My favorite is the 1903 Zulu Motor Cab, but I am most intrigued by the little boy standing inside the elephant leg, what an odd thing!

Zulu Land - Old Africa in 1903

Zulu Land – Old Africa in 1903

This man, Renty, was an African-born slave owned by B.F. Taylor from Columbia, South Carolina when this portrait was taken in 1850.

This man, Renty, was an African-born slave owned by B.F. Taylor from Columbia, South Carolina when this portrait was taken in 1850.

The Zulu Motor Cab in 1903 (1)

The Zulu Motor Cab in 1903 (1)

Teddy Roosevelt station subsequent to a passed elephant on his African Expedition, 1909-1910

Teddy Roosevelt station subsequent to a passed elephant on his African Expedition, 1909-1910

Explorers Martin and Osa Johnson with their craft “The Spirit of Africa and Borneo” confront Marut tribesmen while on Safari, circa 1935.

Explorers Martin and Osa Johnson with their craft “The Spirit of Africa and Borneo” confront Marut tribesmen while on Safari, circa 1935.

Kaffir Kraal  Zulu Land 1903 (7)

Kaffir Kraal Zulu Land 1903 (7)

Kraal in 1903 (8)

Kraal in 1903 (8)

Rickshaw runner 1903 (5)

Rickshaw runner 1903 (5)

Siera Leone

Siera Leone

British soldiers teach African natives how to operate a 3.7cm anti-aircraft gun

British soldiers teach African natives how to operate a 3.7cm anti-aircraft gun

Autochrome of an armed Swazi warrior, Cape Town, South Africa, 1930.

Autochrome of an armed Swazi warrior, Cape Town, South Africa, 1930.

Deutsch-Ostafrika, Askariboy im Elefantenfuss

Deutsch-Ostafrika, Askariboy im Elefantenfuss

A group of South West African Herero people, starving after fleeing from their German rulers, 1907.

A group of South West African Herero people, starving after fleeing from their German rulers, 1907.

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Preserving amatuer WWII photos

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If you have seen our blog before, you know that we just love old  “stuff”!  In our many auctions and moves and relocations, we have been carting around this one box with old papers in it.  We have been carting it around for a couple of years now!  Recently, while going thru some things we started examining this box of “stuff”.  In our minds, we struck gold.  We found an envelope which contained several old negatives.  upon examining them we found out they are shots from Europe during WWII!

I have no idea who these gentlemen are, but I am familiar with what they went thru and what they were fighting for!  I want to share these images as a way of honoring not only these men, but all men and women who have fought on any side of any war!  War is such a terrible thing and while necessary sometimes, it is never something to be taken lightly!  I hope you enjoy these photos, I wish I could give you more information on them but everyone in them is probably passed on by now.

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Storefronts

Fairbanks-Alaska  It was made in between ca. 1900 and 1916.

Fairbanks-Alaska It was made in between ca. 1900 and 1916.

For some reason I just think that these days would have been so much better.  I know there were other trials and tribulations, but think how slow and peaceful the average day would have been.  if you look at the simplicity of the advertising, it is wonderful.  Surely we do not need blasting rap music, dancing girls and nonsense humor in order to be intrigued, do we? When did it come about that we need advertising at the gas pump, it is idiocy.  Our parents and grandparents had the right of it!

Not all of the hustle and bustle of today, people actually knew their neighbors, actually knew their family.  You could probably go into any of these stores at anytime and know everyone in it!  To me, that would just be an awesome thing.  I wish there were a way for us to get back to these times!

Schneider Electric Store. Interior. It was created between 1905 and 1945

Schneider Electric Store. Interior. It was created between 1905 and 1945

Raleigh Haberdasher show window, Washington, D.C. It was made in 1925.

Raleigh Haberdasher show window, Washington, D.C. It was made in 1925.

Window display featuring Pond's Extract products in O'Donnell's drugstore, probably in Washington, D.C. It was taken in between 1909 and 1932.

Window display featuring Pond’s Extract products in O’Donnell’s drugstore, probably in Washington, D.C. It was taken in between 1909 and 1932.

Washington Auto Exchange. It was made between 1905 and 1945

Washington Auto Exchange. It was made between 1905 and 1945

People of Deadwood celebrating completion of a stretch of railroad. It was made in 1888

People of Deadwood celebrating completion of a stretch of railroad. It was made in 1888

James Store, 12th Street, Washington DC. It was taken between 1905 and 1945

James Store, 12th Street, Washington DC. It was taken between 1905 and 1945

Atlanta, Georgia. View on Marietta Street. It was made in 1864 by Barnard, George N., 1819-1902

Atlanta, Georgia. View on Marietta Street. It was made in 1864 by Barnard, George N., 1819-1902

Mullany's Saloon. It was created in 1913

Mullany’s Saloon. It was created in 1913

North side of Chestnut Street, between Second Street and Third Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It was taken in 1842

North side of Chestnut Street, between Second Street and Third Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It was taken in 1842

Old Doughnet Shop. It was created between 1905 and 1945

Old Doughnet Shop. It was created between 1905 and 1945

Ox teams on Main St.,Sturgis, Dakota Territory. It was taken in 1887

Ox teams on Main St.,Sturgis, Dakota Territory. It was taken in 1887

Auction & Negro Sales,  Whitehall Street. It was made in 1864

Why I think people are stupid…..

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It really is not their fault, do you know who Charles E. Perkins is?  Before you delve in to this because it is prety long, you can get the short version with this video!

Here is the rest of the story!  Please do your own research, you will learn why the masses walk like zombies thru the grocery store.  I challenge you to do everything you can to eliminate flouride for six months, if you see no changes, it will still be there for you!

 

Water fluoridation has been a controversial topic for a long time, but much of the general population tend to believe adding fluoride to the water supply is beneficial for everyone. While there is some debate about the intent behind the conspiracy to fluoridate water, most theorists agree that this involuntary medication is toxic.

The first record documenting the fluoridation of drinking water is from Nazi-era Germany during the Second World War. According to Joseph Borkin, it was added to the drinking water in prison camps with the stated reasoning: “mass-medicating water with sodium fluoride was to sterilize humans and force the people in their concentration camps into calm submission.”

Joseph Borkin: The crime and punishment of I.G. Farben >>

This form of chemical medication spread quickly. When the Russians and Germans agreed to split Poland prior to the onset of the war, they shared strategies and information with one another on how to control the Polish territory and people more effectively. The Russians were very impressed with the theories behind water fluoridation, and therefore enacted their own programs.

The conspiracy theories surrounding water fluoridation derive almost exclusively from the immediate post-World War Two period when this information was first introduced to the American public by notable chemists.

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Fluoride is a poison

Fact, Fluoride was one of the main chemicals used in the production of the atomic bomb, millions of tons were used and was one of the most toxic chemicals known at the time.(4)

Fluoride is not safe in any dose and is used in pesticides, tooth paste and put in most drinking water supplies. It causes brain and bone damage.

The truth about water fluoridation.

Below from CHARLES E. PERKINS, Chemist, a letter to the Lee Foundation for Nutritional Research, Milwaukee Wisconsin, on 2 October 1954

“I have your letter of September 29 asking for further documentation regarding a statement made in my book, The Truth About Water Fluoridation, to the effect that the idea of water fluoridation was brought to England from Russia by the Russian Communist Kreminoff. “In the 1930`s, Hitler and the German Nazi`s envisioned a world to be dominated and controlled by a Nazi philosophy of pan-Germanism. The German chemists worked out a very ingenious and far-reaching plan of mass-control which was submitted to and adopted by the German General Staff. This plan was to control the population in any given area through mass medication of drinking water supplies. By this method they could control the population in whole areas, reduce population by water medication that would produce sterility in women, and so on. In this scheme of mass-control, sodium fluoride occupied a prominent place. …

“Repeated doses of infinitesimal amounts of fluoride will in time reduce an individuals power to resist domination, by slowly poisoning and narcotizing a certain area of the brain, thus making him submissive to the will of those who wish to govern him. [A convenient light lobotomy]

“The real reason behind water fluoridation is not to benefit children`s teeth. If this were the real reason there are many ways in which it could be done that are much easier, cheaper, and far more effective. The real purpose behind water fluoridation is to reduce the resistance of the masses to domination and control and loss of liberty.

“When the Nazis under Hitler decided to go into Poland, both the German General Staff and the Russian General Staff exchanged scientific and military ideas, plans, and personnel, and the scheme of mass control through water medication was seized upon by the Russian Communists because it fitted ideally into their plan to communize the world. …

“I was told of this entire scheme by a German chemist who was an official of the great IG Farben chemical industries and was also prominent in the Nazi movement at the time. I say this with all the earnestness and sincerity of a scientist who has spent nearly 20 years` research into the chemistry, biochemistry, physiology and pathology of fluorine–any person who drinks artificially fluoridated water for a period of one year or more will never again be the same person mentally or physically.”

 

Dr. Emmanuel H. Bronner, a former captive in a Nazi prison camp, attempted to expose the global plot to poison the water supplies through several publications.

“As a research chemist of established standing, I built within the past 22 years, 3 American chemical plants and licensed 6 of my 53 patents. Based on my years of practical experience in the health-food and chemical field, let me warn: fluoridation of drinking water is criminal insanity, sure national suicide. Don’t do it… Even in small quantities, sodium fluoride is a deadly poison to which no effective antidote has been found. Every exterminator knows that it is the most efficient rat-killer… Sodium fluoride is entirely different from organic calcium fluoro-phosphate needed by our bodies and provided by nature.”

Read the Full Article
Dr. E.H. Bronner, The Catholic Mirror, 1952

If you find these guys to be old hat, try out

DR PHYLLIS MULLENIX

January, 1998.

Phyllis Mullenix, Ph.D., formerly of Harvard University experienced the wrath of the industry when she walked blindly into the fluoride fray as part of her research program with Harvard’s Department of Neuropathology and Psychiatry. While holding a dual appointment to Harvard and the Forsyth Dental Research Institute, Dr. Mullenix established the Department of Toxicology at Forsyth for the purpose of investigating the environmental impact of substances that were used in dentistry. During that undertaking she was also directed by the institute’s head to investigate fluoride toxicity ……

For her toxicology studies Dr. Mullenix designed a computer pattern recognition system that has been described by other scientists as nothing short of elegant in its ability to study fluoride’s effects on the neuromotor functions of rats.

THE “MIRACLE OF FLUORIDE” -or- A DIRTY INDUSTRY?

“By about 1990 I had gathered enough data from the test and control animals,” Mullenix continues, “to realize that fluoride doesn’t look clean.” When she reviewed that data she realized that something was seriously affecting her test animals. They had all (except the control group) been administered doses of fluoride sufficient to bring their blood levels up to the same as those that had caused dental fluorosis [a brittleness and staining of the teeth] in thousands of children. Up to this point, Mullenix explained, fluorosis was widely thought to be the only effect of excessive fluoridation.

The scientist’s first hint that she may not be navigating friendly waters came when she was ordered to present her findings to the National Institute of Dental Research (NIDR) [a division of NIH, the National Institute of Health]. “That’s when the ‘fun’ started,” she said, “I had no idea what I was getting into. I walked into the main corridors there and all over the walls was ‘The Miracle of Fluoride’. That was my first real kick-in-the-pants as to what was actually going on.” The NIH display, she said, actually made fun of and ridiculed those that were against fluoridation. “I thought, ‘Oh great!’ Here’s the main NIH hospital talking about the ‘Miracle of Fluoride’ and I’m giving a seminar to the NIDR telling them that fluoride is neurotoxic!”

What Dr. Mullenix presented at the seminar that, in reality, sounded the death knell of her career was that:

“The fluoride pattern of behavioral problems matches up with the same results of administering radiation and chemotherapy [to cancer patients]. All of these really nasty treatments that are used clinically in cancer therapy are well known to cause I.Q. deficits in children. That’s one of the best studied effects they know of. The behavioral pattern that results from the use of fluoride matches that produced by cancer treatment that causes a reduction in intelligence.”

At a meeting with dental industry representatives immediately following her presentation, Mullenix was bluntly asked if she was saying that their company’s products were lowering the I.Q. of children? “And I told them, ‘basically, yes.'”

The documents obtained by authors Griffiths and Bryson seem to add yet another voice of corroboration to the reduced intelligence effects of fluoride. “New epidemiological evidence from China adds support,” the writers claim, “showing a correlation between low dose fluoride exposure and diminished I.Q. in children.”

Then in 1994, after refining her research and findings, Dr. Mullenix presented her results to the Journal of Neurotoxicology and Teratology, considered probably the world’s most respected publication in that field. Three days after she joyfully announced to the Forsyth Institute that she had been accepted for publication by the journal, she was dismissed from her position. What followed was a complete evaporation of all grants and funding for any of Mullenix’s research. What that means in the left-brain world of scientific research, which is fueled by grants of government and corporate capital, is the equivalent to an academic burial. Her letter of dismissal from the Forsyth Institute stated as their reason for that action that her work was not “dentally related.” [Fluoride research–not dentally related?] The institute’s director stated, according to Mullenix, “they didn’t consider the safety or the toxicity of fluoride as being their kind of science.” Of course, a logical question begs itself at this last statement: why was Dr. Mullenix assigned the study of fluoride toxicity in the first place if it was not “their kind of science”?

Subsequently, she was continually hounded by both Forsyth and the NIH as to the identity of the journal in which her research was to be published. She told The WINDS that she refused to disclose that information because she knew the purpose of this continual interrogation was so that they could attempt to quash its publication.

Almost immediately following her dismissal, Dr. Mullenix said, the Forsyth Institute received a quarter-million dollar grant from the Colgate company. Coincidence or reward?

Her findings clearly detailed the developmental effects of fluoride, pre- and postnatal. Doses administered before birth produced marked hyperactivity in offspring. Postnatal administration caused the infant rats to exhibit what Dr. Mullenix calls the “couch potato syndrome”–a malaise or absence of initiative and activity. One need only observe the numerous children being dosed with Ritalin as treatment for their hyperactivity to draw logical correlations.

Following her dismissal, the scientist’s equipment and computers, designed specifically for the studies, were mysteriously damaged and destroyed by water leakage before she could remove them from Forsyth. Coincidence?

Dr. Mullenix was then given an unfunded research position at Children’s Hospital in Boston, but with no equipment and no money–what for? “The people at Children’s Hospital, for heaven’s sake, came right out and said they were scared because they knew how important the fluoride issue was,” Mullenix said. “Even at Forsyth they told me I was endangering funds for the institution if I published that information.” It has become clear to such as Dr. Mullenix et al, that money, not truth, drives science–even at the expense of the health and lives of the nation’s citizens.

“I got into science because it was fun,” she said, “and I would like to go back and do further studies, but I no longer have any faith in the integrity of the system. I find research is utterly controlled.” If one harbors any doubt that large sums of corporate money and political clout can really provide sufficient influence to induce scientists and respected physicians to endorse potentially harmful treatment for their patients, consider the results published in a January 8th article of the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM). The Journal revealed their survey of doctors in favor of, and against, a particular drug that has been proven harmful (in this case calcium blockers shown to significantly increase the risk of breast cancer in older women). “Our results,” the Journal said, “demonstrate a strong association between authors’ published positions on the safety of calcium-channel antagonists and their financial relationships with pharmaceutical manufacturers.”

When The WINDS asked Dr. Mullenix where she planned to take her research, she said that she is not hopeful that any place exists that isn’t “afraid of fluoride or printing the truth.”

The end result of the dark odyssey of Phyllis Mullenix, Ph.D., and her journey through the nightmare of the fluoride industry is, essentially, a ruined career of a brilliant scientist because hers was not “their kind of science”.

Child Soldiers of the American History

Child Soldiers of the Civil War

Throughout history children have often been used in war!  You can find examples of child soldiers from ancient roman times all the way through to present day Africa, the Middle East and elsewhere in the world.  Memories of the things that happen in war should not be a burden for children to bear!

“Give me the money that has been spent in war and I will clothe every man, woman, and child in an attire of which kings and queens will be proud. I will build a schoolhouse in every valley over the whole earth. I will crown every hillside with a place of worship consecrated to peace.” – Charles Sumner

WWI At stadium reception to Italians

WWI At stadium reception to Italians

Colonel Brownrigg C.B. & the two Russian boys Alma ; Inkermann. It was made between 1855 and 1865

Colonel Brownrigg C.B. & the two Russian boys Alma ; Inkermann. It was made between 1855 and 1865

Group of Boy Scouts. It was taken in 1913

Group of Boy Scouts. It was taken in 1913

Junior National Guard Lincoln Shab. It was created in 1917

Junior National Guard Lincoln Shab. It was created in 1917

Powder monkey by gun of U.S.S. New Hampshire off Charleston, S.C.. It was made in 1864.

Powder monkey by gun of U.S.S. New Hampshire off Charleston, S.C.. It was made in 1864.

six or seven years old. His is wearing a uniform. It appears that he is a combat soldier, wearing a Colt Revolver. It was created between 1860 and 1865

six or seven years old. His is wearing a uniform. It appears that he is a combat soldier, wearing a Colt Revolver. It was created between 1860 and 1865